Treatment Outcome of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Tehsil Head Quarter Hospital Dargai

Even in this modern era Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious challenge for the world. Due to emerging of resistance strain and coinfection with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) it is difficult to control the disease. Among the 22 high TB burden countries Pakistan ranks 5th, in case of multi drug resistant its position is 27th. In the year 2013, approximately 12997 incident cases of drug resistant TB in which only 1570 (13%) were registered for treatment. Aim of this study was to find out treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at Tehsil Head Quarter Dargai, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Pulmonary Tuberculosis

A total of 410 PTB patients were enrolled. Of the total cases, 373 (90.98%) were diagnosed as new cases, 17 (4.15%) were relapse cases, 13 (3.17%) were transfer in cases, 7 (1.7%) were others cases while no case of treatment failure and treatment default were recorded. The treatment success rate (cured and treatment completed) was reported 333 (81.22%), 8 (1.95%) cases were died from PTB, only 1 (0.24%) case was failure, 2 (0.49%) cases were default while 4 (0.98%) were transfer out and 62 (15.12%) cases were no record of treatment outcome.

Role of Genetic Testing in Lung Transplantation; Prediction of Inflammation

Due to the increased incidence of end-stage lung diseases that lead to pulmonary failure, lung transplant becomes a frequent life-saving intervention. Unfortunately, there is a high incidence rate of primary graft dysfunction and failure after transplant. Research is progressing strongly in many directions to improve the clinical outcome of lung transplant.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an antiinflammatory myokine. In humans, it is encoded by the IL6 gene. IL-6 is produced mainly by the T cells and the macrophages of the lung, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, brain and skin. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is the main regulator of IL-6 gene expression, which increases in all cases of tissue injury and inflammation.

Lung Transplantation
Lung Transplantation

IL-6 is also secreted by the vascular smooth muscles as a proinflammatory cytokine, however, IL-6 processes an indirect antiinflammatory effects through the antagonization of TNF-alpha and IL-1, and the activation of IL-10.