Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand as a Potential Therapeutic Target

CD40 and its ligand CD40L (CD154), members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super-family, have a key role in the functions of the immune system. It is well known that CD40 is widely expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, platelets and fibroblasts. However, CD40 expression was observed not only in cells related to the immune system, but also in cells of several different types of carcinomas, such as in the ovary, breast, lung, renal, melanoma and colon among others. CD40 it appears to initiate the differentiation and the proliferation of certain cell types.

Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand
Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand

The CD40 ligand CD154 has been most commonly observed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and secondly on activated CD8+ T lymphocytes, eosinophils and B lymphocytes as well. Connection of the CD40 with its ligand CD154, results in the activation of both the humoral and cellular immune response systems via the professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells.

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Evidence of Irf4 Gene, Irf2, Irf8 Genes in an Invertebrate: The Sea Star Asterias rubens

IFR regulatory factors are ancient molecules conserved throughout the evolution of metazoans; they play a fundamental roles in innate and adaptative immune system. To date 11 IRF family have been described in vertebrates and invertebrates.

Previous studies showed that in vertebrates, IRF4 was expressed in most types of immune cells, and had critical functions in B cell differenciation and immunoglobulin production.

Adaptive immune
Other studies on chicken found that IRF4 was mainly expressed in the bursa, bursal lymphocytes and thymus . Con A induced the expression of IRF4 in spleen cells.

As for IRF8 in mouse, it specifically bound to the expression of type I IFR and IFR-inducible MHC Class I genes. IRF2 had the same rôle and played a regulatory one in cells of the immune system. The aim of this work is the research of such factors in an invertebrate : the sea star Asterias rubens.