Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand as a Potential Therapeutic Target

CD40 and its ligand CD40L (CD154), members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super-family, have a key role in the functions of the immune system. It is well known that CD40 is widely expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, platelets and fibroblasts. However, CD40 expression was observed not only in cells related to the immune system, but also in cells of several different types of carcinomas, such as in the ovary, breast, lung, renal, melanoma and colon among others. CD40 it appears to initiate the differentiation and the proliferation of certain cell types.

Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand
Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand

The CD40 ligand CD154 has been most commonly observed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and secondly on activated CD8+ T lymphocytes, eosinophils and B lymphocytes as well. Connection of the CD40 with its ligand CD154, results in the activation of both the humoral and cellular immune response systems via the professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells.

Advertisements

Lung Cancer Therapy – Application of Antimicrobial Peptides

One of the major health burdens that count for 1.59 million deaths is lung cancer through worldwide. Recently, antimicrobial peptides i.e. AMPs have gained attention as potential anti-cancer drugs so that they can selectively target and kill cancer cells and does not affect the healthy cells. Author reviewed many studies and presented the discussion whether antimicrobial peptides can be a better option for treating lung cancer. Hence, recommend further investigation of potential antimicrobial peptides as new application in lung cancer therapy.

Lung Cancer Therapy
Lung Cancer Therapy

SCLC is treated mostly with chemotherapy whereas NSCLC can be treated with chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these treatments depending on the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. While several treatment options exist, chemotherapy remains the treatment choice for advanced/metastatic disease. Unlike other cancers such as breast and prostate, survival rates for lung cancer have not shown great improvements.

Advanced Model for Evaluation of iPSCs Lung Engraftment

Pulmonary pathologies are one of the most common causes of death in human populations. Lung malfunction can be caused by many different conditions from preterm delivery (developmental lung abnormalities) and hereditary diseases (cystic fibrosis) to chronic inflammatory processes, malignant transformations in the respiratory system (lung cancer), ionizing radiation (radiotherapy) and certain antibiotics (chemotherapy) and so on.

Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of human pregnancies between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation. The resulting developmental lung abnormalities are the most common complication in extreme premature infants accounting for more than 70% of perinatal mortality. In spite of recent advances in perinatal care, rates of pulmonary dysplasia have not dramatically changed over recent years.

iPSCs Lung Engraftment
iPSCs Lung Engraftment

Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmenbrane conductance regulator –CFTR-. At three months of age, most babies with cystic fibrosis have abnormalities detectable by chest-computed tomography. The average lifespan of cystic fibrosis patients is around 40 years and obviously cystic fibrosis is also the target of novel medications that may alleviate the pulmonary symptoms.