Effect of GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Environmental friendly biofuels gain great interests due to climate change and the need for renewable transportation fuels in recent years. Ethanol has been received more attention as the most widely used biofuel . However, compared to ethanol, higher alcohols have several advantages as next-generation transport fuels. And they are compatible with current infrastructure. Isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties such as higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity than ethanol. Furthermore, it has higher octane number than the isomer n-butanol.

GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer
GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high tolerance to isobutanol up to 20 g/l and robustness during fermentation in harsh industrial conditions. In addition, S. cerevisiae naturally produces small amount of isobutanol as byproduct from the catabolism of amino acidsx. So S. cerevisiae has been considered as an attractive alternative host strain to produce isobutanol. Initially, glucose is converted to pyruvate via the process of glycolysis. Then pyruvate is converted to 2- ketoisovalerate (KIV) in the mitochondria by acetolactate synthase (Ilv2), acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase (Ilv5) and dihydroxyacid dehydrates (Ilv3)

Mycological Evaluation of Smoked-dried Fish Sold at Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria: Preliminary Findings and Potential Health Implications

Fish is an aquatic vertebrate with fins, gills and skin with glandular secretion that decreases friction. A typical fish is torpedo-shaped and usually limbless, with a head containing a brain or sensory organ and muscular tail. Most fish have scales and are poikilothermic. Fish are extremely perishable food. For example, most fish become inedible within 12 hours at tropical temperatures. Spoilage begins as soon as the fish dies and processing therefore should be promptly done to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Fish is a low acid food and therefore susceptible to growth of food poisoning pathogens making this another reason why they should be processed quickly .

Fish contamination
Fish contamination

Preservation of fish by smoking is carried out after they are catch from water bodies, thereafter smoked fish may be eaten without further cooking. From the processing units to market centres, smokeddried fish are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds.

New Natural Medium Using Vitis vinirfera for Siderophore Production

For any bacterium to propagate for any purpose it is necessary to provide the appropriate biochemical and biophysical environment. The food base that supports the growth of an organism called culture medium; the biochemical (nutritional) environment made available in this culture medium. The food base depending upon the special needs of particular bacteria (as well as particular investigators), so that a large variety and types of culture media have been developed with different purposes and uses. These include sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and metal ions including iron. Culture media employed in the isolation and maintenance of pure cultures of bacteria and used for identification of bacteria according to their biochemical and physiological properties.

siderophore-production
Siderophore Production

Grapes (Vitis vinifera ) provide many nutrients like carbohydrates (glucose), vitamins, minerals, fibers, phytochemicals and antioxidants. The functional quality of grape fruit characterized by its metabolic compositions. It contains a number of secondary metabolites like flavonols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, stilbene derivatives . The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations.

Effect of GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Environmental friendly biofuels gain great interests due to climate change and the need for renewable transportation fuels in recent years. Ethanol has been received more attention as the most widely used biofuel. However, compared to ethanol, higher alcohols have several advantages as next-generation transport fuels. And they are compatible with current infrastructure. Isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties such as higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity than ethanol. Furthermore, it has higher octane number than the isomer n-butanol.

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high tolerance to isobutanol up to 20 g/l and robustness during fermentation in harsh industrial conditions. In addition, S. cerevisiae naturally produces small amount of isobutanol as byproduct from the catabolism of amino acids. So S. cerevisiae has been considered as an attractive alternative host strain to produce isobutanol.

New Natural Medium Using Vitis vinirfera for Siderophore Production from Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia

For any bacterium to propagate for any purpose it is necessary to provide the appropriate biochemical and biophysical environment. The food base that supports the growth of an organism called culture medium; the biochemical (nutritional) environment made available in this culture medium. The food base depending upon the special needs of particular bacteria (as well as particular investigators), so that a large variety and types of culture media have been developed with different purposes and uses. These include sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and metal ions including iron. Culture media employed in the isolation and maintenance of pure cultures of bacteria and used for identification of bacteria according to their biochemical and physiological properties.

Siderophore Production
Siderophore Production

Grapes (Vitis vinifera ) provide many nutrients like carbohydrates (glucose), vitamins, minerals, fibers, phytochemicals and antioxidants. The functional quality of grape fruit characterized by its metabolic compositions. It contains a number of secondary metabolites like flavonols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, stilbene derivatives . The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations.

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Female Transplant Recipients with Normal Cytology

Data from the Brazilian Organ Transplant Association show that, internationally, Brazil ranks second in terms of the number of kidney, liver and cornea transplants performed. These patients will have to continuously take immunosuppressants to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ and infections or tumors may occur. Among such infections, the main one is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its related conditions, particularly cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Normal Cytology
Normal Cytology

HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and the estimated exposure of the general public varies from 70% in the U.S. to 95% in some African countries. Most women in the world will likely be infected with at least one of the various types of HPV during their active sex life. Persistent infection by HPV is required for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Among women with a persistent infection, 15-30% will present with a precursor lesion for cervical cancer.