Pharmacotherapies for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia with Alzheimer’s Disease: Two Subcategories of these Symptoms

We previously reported that aging process and disease progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) connected depressive symptoms (affective disturbance and anxiety) with psychotic symptoms such as delusion, hallucination and aggressiveness. These features are mixed state of manic state and depressive state, therefore, there might be relationship between bipolarity (BT) and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD. From these reports, we considered that BPSD in AD should be treated as “augmentation” (pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder) .

Psychological Symptoms of Dementia
Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

In this previous article, we proposed the reasonability of prescribing the atypical antipsychotics for BPSD in AD. However, in Japan, there are currently no licensed medicines for the management of BPSD in AD patients although in case of oldest old patient antidepressant is useful for ameliorating BPSD in AD.

Cross-Fertilization of Studies in Neurodegeneration

Chen et al.demonstrated that curli (a natural bacterial amyloid fibril) expressed by many Enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, was capable of enhancing alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregation in both aged rats and the nematode C. elegans overexpressing alpha-synuclein. They suggested that amyloid proteins in the microbiota might be involved in the triggering of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurodegeneration
Neurodegeneration

In this letter, we wish to draw attention to the wide potential for reciprocal fertilization of experimental and observational research in organ-limited amyloid disorders. By way of reference, we take our recent review on the epidemiology of different conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDD) undertaken from a biological perspective, which incorporated descriptive and analytical elements of both the general and clinical epidemiology of CNDD.

Catechol Tetrahydroisoquinolines Enhance a-Synuclein Aggregation and Specify the Neurotoxicity to Dopaminergic Neurons

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common multisystem neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease, whose incidence rates are around 1% and 4% of the population above the age of 60 and 80 years, respectively. It is a progressive movement disorder, which is clinically manifested by resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and akinesia/bradykinesia usually along with cognitive impairment. The major hallmarks of PD are the loss of dopaminergic neurons and formation of Lewy Bodies (LBs) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The dopamine(DA) replacement therapy with levodopa(LDOPA) is a milestone in the treatment of PD. However, L-DOPA can induce motor fluctuation and dyskinesias after several years of treatment. So it is of important realistic significance to explore effective approaches for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PD through clarifying its pathological mechanism.

Catechol Tetrahydroisoquinolines
Catechol Tetrahydroisoquinolines

a-syn was the first reported gene, the mutation of which was described in a family with dominantly inherited PD in 1997. a-syn was believed as the key protein involved in PD, overexpression of which has been wildly used as PD models. Although increasing studies on the physiological and pathological roles of a-syn popped up in recent years, the exact mechanism of a-syn aggregation in PD is still elusive.

Genetic Variations: Heroes or Villains

Human genetics is one of the most fascinating studies that provide the better understanding towards human beings. The study of human genetics unveils the factors responsible for human diseases. In recent times, scientists have overcome the complexity of some rare genetic disorders. Several genes seem to be involved in genetic diseases. In order to correlate genotype with phenotype of genetic disorders, studies were carried out to determine nucleotide diversity among individuals. Variation in the DNA sequence of a gene is one of the several factors held responsible for rare diseases and they arise due to the mutations.

Genetic Variations
Genetic Variations

While mutation is defined by alteration in DNA sequence that changes the function of the gene, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most common form of genetic variation that occurs 1 in 1000 base pairs in which nucleotide differs only at one position of the DNA sequence. Till now, approx. 11 million SNPs have been reported in the human genome. Out of these, around 60,000 are found to be present in coding and regulatory regions. They may alter the structure or function of DNA by influencing the promoter activity or conformation of pre-mRNA. SNPs might play a direct or indirect role in genetic disorder.

Dementia and the Brain-Breathing Connection

Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias is a scourge upon the world. In the U.S. alone, Alzheimer’s (AD) affects 5 million people. When considering that AD is only one of several important dementias and that dementia is vastly underdiagnosed, the actual numbers are likely twice as high. When you then add in those with pre-clinical dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment, a total exceeding 15 million Americans is not out of the question.

Dementia
Dementia

Dementia is a growth industry. As the population ages and as the Baby Boomers and Generation X individuals reach prime dementia age over 70, these numbers will mushroom. The economic burden on society, through the cost of the disease, associated medical problems, caregiving costs and lost productivity is astounding. But you already know this. It is part of every talk at every conference about dementia that you attend and part of the fundraising and consciousness raising efforts of the Alzheimer’s Association.

Alzheimer and Parkinsons Disease -Two Faces of the Same Disease?

growing elderly population is increasing the number of persons with late-onset diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) throughout the world. These two diseases are not related but they do have some similarities. Both are neurodegenerative diseases and typically begin late in life. Both are characterized clinically by slow and progressive disease course and pathologically by neuronal degeneration with intra neuronal inclusions. Although initial symptoms differ, both diseases lead to dementia.

Alzheimer and Parkinsons Disease
Alzheimer and Parkinsons Disease

Apart from these apparent similarities, two diseases are completely different. PD is primarily a movement disorder that can eventually develop cognitive impairment and dementia characterized by visuospatial impairment and fluctuations in mental state. However, many individuals with PD never develop cognitive impairment during the course of their illness.

Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Increase the Telomere Length in Patient

During the past few years, important results have been achieved in trying to corroborate the essential role of senescence process in human body. Senescence may exhibit a negative impact on organ, tissue and cell regeneration through a release of host bioactive molecules, including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors known as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence process have been associated with few metabolic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Currently, the major challenge in the field is to determine the association between senescent cells and age-related tissue dysfunction, define if this is just a question of correlation or there is cause-effect condition or both.

Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells
Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein arrangements that close the final parts of linear chromosomes. Functional telomeres need appropriate extension of telomeric DNA repeats to keep chromosomal stability. Any dysfunction on this part of DNA lead to chromosome end-to-end fusion, chromosomal changes and instabilities that may eventually lead to degenerative disease such as cancer.