We previously reported that aging process and disease progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) connected depressive symptoms (affective disturbance and anxiety) with psychotic symptoms such as delusion, hallucination and aggressiveness. These features are mixed state of manic state and depressive state, therefore, there might be relationship between bipolarity (BT) and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD. From these reports, we considered that BPSD in AD should be treated as “augmentation” (pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder) .
In this previous article, we proposed the reasonability of prescribing the atypical antipsychotics for BPSD in AD. However, in Japan, there are currently no licensed medicines for the management of BPSD in AD patients although in case of oldest old patient antidepressant is useful for ameliorating BPSD in AD.
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common multisystem neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease, whose incidence rates are around 1% and 4% of the population above the age of 60 and 80 years, respectively. It is a progressive movement disorder, which is clinically manifested by resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and akinesia/bradykinesia usually along with cognitive impairment. The major hallmarks of PD are the loss of dopaminergic neurons and formation of Lewy Bodies (LBs) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The dopamine(DA) replacement therapy with levodopa(LDOPA) is a milestone in the treatment of PD. However, L-DOPA can induce motor fluctuation and dyskinesias after several years of treatment. So it is of important realistic significance to explore effective approaches for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PD through clarifying its pathological mechanism.
Human genetics is one of the most fascinating studies that provide the better understanding towards human beings. The study of human genetics unveils the factors responsible for human diseases. In recent times, scientists have overcome the complexity of some rare genetic disorders. Several genes seem to be involved in genetic diseases. In order to correlate genotype with phenotype of genetic disorders, studies were carried out to determine nucleotide diversity among individuals. Variation in the DNA sequence of a gene is one of the several factors held responsible for rare diseases and they arise due to the mutations.
While mutation is defined by alteration in DNA sequence that changes the function of the gene, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most common form of genetic variation that occurs 1 in 1000 base pairs in which nucleotide differs only at one position of the DNA sequence. Till now, approx. 11 million SNPs have been reported in the human genome. Out of these, around 60,000 are found to be present in coding and regulatory regions. They may alter the structure or function of DNA by influencing the promoter activity or conformation of pre-mRNA. SNPs might play a direct or indirect role in genetic disorder.
growing elderly population is increasing the number of persons with late-onset diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) throughout the world. These two diseases are not related but they do have some similarities. Both are neurodegenerative diseases and typically begin late in life. Both are characterized clinically by slow and progressive disease course and pathologically by neuronal degeneration with intra neuronal inclusions. Although initial symptoms differ, both diseases lead to dementia.
During the past few years, important results have been achieved in trying to corroborate the essential role of senescence process in human body. Senescence may exhibit a negative impact on organ, tissue and cell regeneration through a release of host bioactive molecules, including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors known as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence process have been associated with few metabolic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Currently, the major challenge in the field is to determine the association between senescent cells and age-related tissue dysfunction, define if this is just a question of correlation or there is cause-effect condition or both.