Even in this modern era Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious challenge for the world. Due to emerging of resistance strain and coinfection with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) it is difficult to control the disease. Among the 22 high TB burden countries Pakistan ranks 5th, in case of multi drug resistant its position is 27th. In the year 2013, approximately 12997 incident cases of drug resistant TB in which only 1570 (13%) were registered for treatment. Aim of this study was to find out treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at Tehsil Head Quarter Dargai, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014.
Karen White and colleagues presented the new NRTI GS-9131, which reveals strong activity against NRTI-resistant HIV-1.At a very low EC50 of only 0.16 μM (± 0.02) GS-9131 is still active against most of NRTI-resistant HIV-1, showing mutations of K65R, M184V, L74V/I, 6TAMs+184V or Q151M+M184V.Unlike TAF, GS-3131 is an adenosine-analogue. But alike TAF it is a prodrug, which is modified by cathepsin A into its intracellular form of GS-9148 and then phosphorylated by intracellular kinases into its antiretroviral active diphosphate.
Immune Activation and HIV Pathogenesis: Implications for Therapy Nearly 35 million people all over the world are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Around 2 million people get infected with the virus each year and the pandemic continues to devastate despite three decades of our understanding of the pathogenesis.
Over the last decades we have witnessed a real revolution in the treatment of viruses. It started with the development of antiretrovirals to eliminate the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) responsible for a global health crisis. HIV continues to be a major global problem, and according to statistics 38.1 million people have become infected with HIV and 25.3 million people have died of AIDS-related illnesses. Now over six distinctive drug classes of antiretrovirals and as many as 40 HIV commercially available medicines are available to address HIV infection. Although the World Health Organization (WHO), governments around the world, and private agencies have joined efforts to expand access to antiretroviral therapy, only half of people are receiving treatment, and not all are resulting in success.
Another virus is joining the burden of health care costs, the hepatitis B and C virus. It is estimated that approximately 150-180 million people in the world are living with chronic hepatitis. Of them, approximately a third (20%-40%) will develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and die. Fortunately, anti-viral treatment for viral hepatitis is now available to achieve viral suppression. Similar to HIV, combination therapy represents the gold standard.
The following three discoveries, identification of master gene regulator targets, small molecules capable of altering gene expression, and availability of drug delivery by viral and non- viral carriers to organ, cell and mitochondrial-sites provide the potential for magic bullets for multiple human pathologies. Despite disease symptomatic differences, fundamental stresses and abnormal gene function are shared and subject to treatment by common drugs. The master gene regulators are identified by their conservation throughout evolution, since nature demands stress resistance for survival. The common stresses are oxidative, hunger, thirst, energy depletion, temperature, and infection. Tolerance strategies and drugs employed to treat the common stresses are candidates to treat HIV. Mimetics of tolerance, and stress resistance agents used to tolerate stress in different organisms are reservoirs for drug intervention applicable in HIV therapeutics.
The master regulator, telomerase, is identified by its phylogenetic conservation throughout evolution. Clues from studies of high resolution of telomerase structure, its subunits, and potential interactions reveal its ancient origin and remarkable similarities with retroviruses and HIV, and reveal drug target potentials for HIV therapy. The diversity of functions of telomerase in the nucleus, cytoplasm, nucleolus, and mitochondria, provide a myriad of interactions and potential for interaction sites with HIV amenable to regulation.
School must contribute to the health and well-being of its students. In recent decades, a lot of research has been devoted to this question, identifying the programs that are based on a holistic dimension as the most effective ones. One of the most proven strategies to promote health and well-being of young people is education and the promotion of Health Education in school context. In this regard it should be noted that the promotion of Health Education integrates several areas, namely Nutrition, Physical activity, Sexuality, STIs, HIV, Substance use, Violence at school, and mental health, from which Sexuality, STIs and HIV have been prioritized. In addition, the Ministry of Education established measures and specific guidelines regarding both the promotion of Health Education and Sexuality Education in a school context.
These include the inclusion of Health Education in the School’s Educational Project,the appointment of a coordinating teacher,the existence of mechanisms of evaluation,a minimum of six hours a year of Sexuality Education in the elementary school (first six years of school) and a minimum of twelve hours a year in the other school levels.Sexuality Education should be provided in a non-disciplinary curriculum area as well as cross-sectionally in all the school subjects contemplating Sexuality Education topics.In addition schools should create an office (the Health Office) to provide support to students, at an individual level, thus guaranteeing that their individual needs such as the clarification of doubts and the referral to structures such as the local Health Centre are made whenever necessary; and compete for budget allocation to the promotion of Health Education.