Pharmacotherapies for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia with Alzheimer’s Disease: Two Subcategories of these Symptoms

We previously reported that aging process and disease progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) connected depressive symptoms (affective disturbance and anxiety) with psychotic symptoms such as delusion, hallucination and aggressiveness. These features are mixed state of manic state and depressive state, therefore, there might be relationship between bipolarity (BT) and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD. From these reports, we considered that BPSD in AD should be treated as “augmentation” (pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder) .

Psychological Symptoms of Dementia
Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

In this previous article, we proposed the reasonability of prescribing the atypical antipsychotics for BPSD in AD. However, in Japan, there are currently no licensed medicines for the management of BPSD in AD patients although in case of oldest old patient antidepressant is useful for ameliorating BPSD in AD.

Nipah Virus Infection in Thailand: Status

The Nipah virus is an important emerging infectious disease that is still included in the list of disease to be surveillance by WHO. The neurological involvement in Nipah virus infection is an important clinical manifestation. This pathogenic virus of this disease was firstly detected and reported by professor Bing from Malaysia, a Southeast Asian country. Here, the authors would like to discuss the present situation of Nipah virus infection in Thailand, a Southeast Asian country next to Malaysia. At present, Nipah virus infection is still under the closed surveillance from Thailand public health ministry.

Nipah Virus Infection
Nipah Virus Infection

According to a recent report on pathogen causing neurological infection, the Nipah virus is still not observed as a cause of neurological infection in Thai patients with neuro infections. Nevertheless, there are some reports on the survey of prevalence of Nipah virus in several animals, especially for bats, in Thailand. According to the survey in bats, the prevalence of Nipah virus contamination was seen in 6.29% of bats collected from several regions in Thailand. Of interest, although bat is proved to be the carrier of several pathogenic virus such rabies, the bat has never been the problem of zoonosis in Thailand.

Cross-Fertilization of Studies in Neurodegeneration

Chen et al.demonstrated that curli (a natural bacterial amyloid fibril) expressed by many Enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, was capable of enhancing alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregation in both aged rats and the nematode C. elegans overexpressing alpha-synuclein. They suggested that amyloid proteins in the microbiota might be involved in the triggering of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurodegeneration
Neurodegeneration

In this letter, we wish to draw attention to the wide potential for reciprocal fertilization of experimental and observational research in organ-limited amyloid disorders. By way of reference, we take our recent review on the epidemiology of different conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDD) undertaken from a biological perspective, which incorporated descriptive and analytical elements of both the general and clinical epidemiology of CNDD.

Autism Spectrum Disorder- a group of developmental disorders

“Autism spectrum disorder” diagnosis requires the presence of at least three symptoms in the category of “deficit of social communication” and at least two in that of “repetitive behaviours.” This work discusses the link between autism, empathy and perception – action process, according to neuroscientific evidences. The results suggest that malfunctions hinder the normal development of self-other relationship, triggering waterfall processes that result in empathy deficit. However, the literature is not sufficient to establish the extent to which these elements are altered in people with autism.

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder

In this hypothesis, the fundamental characteristic of empathy consists in being both ourselves and the other. Following Berthoz, empathy is a dynamic process, which requires a doubling, requires the adoption of an egocentric point of view, but after an allocentric manipulation, while inhibiting the emotional contagion (typical of sympathy). Adopting this perspective, the ability to assess the perceptual egocentrism condition is of fundamental importance in the teaching-learning process.

Severe Hypothyroidism Presenting with Acute Mania and Psychosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Thyroid dysfunction is known to have a significant impact on mental health. Hypothyroidism, in particular, has been linked to mood disorders and acute psychosis. Though most commonly associated with depression, hypothyroidism has been linked to psychosis since the late 1800s, in reports of delusions and hallucinations in patients with myxedema. In 1949, Asher coined the term “myxoedematous madness” to identify the psychotic manifestations of hypothyroidism, reporting 14 cases of psychosis with hypothyroidism.

Acute Mania and Psychosis
Acute Mania and Psychosis

More recent literature highlights the incidence and coexistence of hypothyroidism and psychiatric disorders, describing possible mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of these disorders. The link between hypothyroidism and mania, however, is less clear, with few reports in the literature. We present a case report of a 40 year old Caucasian male presenting with acute onset mania with psychosis and previously undiagnosed severe hypothyroidism.

Transcutaneous Auricular Vague Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Alternative Therapy for Insomnia Disorder

Insomnia disorder (ID) is a common condition that includes difficulty in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, waking up too early, and nonrestorative or poor-quality sleep, all of which are commonly associated with symptoms of daytime functional impairment. According to a WHO collaborative study in 14 countries, 16% of correspondents had difficulty falling asleep; 25% of the correspondents either experienced difficulty staying asleep or woke up too early. The prevalence is even higher in the elderly and twice as high in women as in men.

Insomnia disorder
Insomnia disorder

Daytime complaints of people with insomnia concern cognitive functioning, fatigue, and depressed mood. Moreover, insomnia leads to higher risks of depression, anxiety and cardiovascular diseases. Daytime consequences and functional impairment caused a heavy economic burden to the society. It was estimated that the total annual cost of insomnia in 1994 was approximately $30-$35 billion in the USA. Now-a-days, the number should be much higher.

Isolated Lesion of the Lateral Pectoral Nerve due to Repeated Trauma

The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) sub serves the proximal two thirds of the pectoralis major muscle. It does not contain cutaneous sensory fibers. Clinical findings of lateral pectoral nerve injury include asymmetry of chest wall associated with atrophy and weakness of the pectoralis major muscle. Mononeuropathy of the lateral pectoral nerve occurs less frequently. In this report we present two cases of progressive atrophy and weakness of the clavicular part of pectoralis major muscle innervated by lateral pectoral nerve.

Isolated Lesion of the Lateral Pectoral Nerve
Isolated Lesion of the Lateral Pectoral Nerve

A twenty-six years old man, who had progressive atrophy of the right clavicular portion of pectoralis major muscle accompanied by pain on the right chest and shoulder for three months, was referred to our neurology outpatient clinic. He was a worker of an automotive plant. He had been working in a leaning position at a narrow place with his right arm stretched out.