Effect of GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Environmental friendly biofuels gain great interests due to climate change and the need for renewable transportation fuels in recent years. Ethanol has been received more attention as the most widely used biofuel . However, compared to ethanol, higher alcohols have several advantages as next-generation transport fuels. And they are compatible with current infrastructure. Isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties such as higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity than ethanol. Furthermore, it has higher octane number than the isomer n-butanol.

GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer
GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high tolerance to isobutanol up to 20 g/l and robustness during fermentation in harsh industrial conditions. In addition, S. cerevisiae naturally produces small amount of isobutanol as byproduct from the catabolism of amino acidsx. So S. cerevisiae has been considered as an attractive alternative host strain to produce isobutanol. Initially, glucose is converted to pyruvate via the process of glycolysis. Then pyruvate is converted to 2- ketoisovalerate (KIV) in the mitochondria by acetolactate synthase (Ilv2), acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase (Ilv5) and dihydroxyacid dehydrates (Ilv3)

A New method to Study Activity of Anti-cancerous Enzymes extracted from E.coli

journal of bacteriology parasitology impactL-asparaginase is known to be the most hopeful and upcoming anti-tumour enzyme helpful in reduction of the level of amino acid L-asparagine resulting in cancer cell starvation and leading to the cell death. Although, there are many sources of asparaginase enzyme yet bacterial source i.e. E.coli and Erwinia species is mostly used as a therapeutic agent against leukaemia. In presented study screening of various bacteria is carried out by rapid plate assay for asparaginase. Enzyme producing then intracellular and extracellular Asparaginase were extracted from its potent producer i.e. E.coli that is isolated from sewage water. Obtained results showed that an intracellular asparaginase enzyme is found to be more active against asparagines as compare to the extracellular enzyme.

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Gastroprotective Activities of Buddleja scordioides-Role of Polyphenols against Inflammation

Medicinal plants show great interest today because of its multiple physiological effects. They contain a diversity of chemical compounds, phytochemicals, with demonstrated important biological activities. These compounds are produced by the secondary metabolism of plants, which have evolved from different biotic or abiotic factors, and used by the plant for defense or survival. However, multiple studies on these compounds have proven beneficial to human health.

shikmate pathway synthesis of phenolic compounds
shikmate pathway synthesis of phenolic compounds

Phytochemicals have multiple properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, which can be used as a preventive means to protect against the development of health problems. They may interact with molecules that can inhibit the genesis of this type of pathologies or conversely, interact with biomarkers that enhance the protective capabilities of the organism.

Lung Cancer Therapy – Application of Antimicrobial Peptides

One of the major health burdens that count for 1.59 million deaths is lung cancer through worldwide. Recently, antimicrobial peptides i.e. AMPs have gained attention as potential anti-cancer drugs so that they can selectively target and kill cancer cells and does not affect the healthy cells. Author reviewed many studies and presented the discussion whether antimicrobial peptides can be a better option for treating lung cancer. Hence, recommend further investigation of potential antimicrobial peptides as new application in lung cancer therapy.

Lung Cancer Therapy
Lung Cancer Therapy

SCLC is treated mostly with chemotherapy whereas NSCLC can be treated with chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these treatments depending on the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. While several treatment options exist, chemotherapy remains the treatment choice for advanced/metastatic disease. Unlike other cancers such as breast and prostate, survival rates for lung cancer have not shown great improvements.

Prevention of Infection in Lupus Patients

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, production of autoantibodies, and tissue damage resulting from chronic inflammation. The treatment includes the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial drugs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Despite great improvements in reducing mortality in SLE, the mortality due to infections remains unchanged, constituting the cause of death in 1 out of 3 SLE patients.

Lupus Patients
Lupus Patients

Multiple risk factors for infection have been reported. They include immunological disorders due to lupus and its therapy, particularly immunosuppressive and cytotoxic medications. Lupus disease activity, measured by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), is also an important risk factor for infection. The risk is also dependent on the degree of immunosuppression.

Rabies lyssavirus Isolates from Brazilian Different Reservoirs Species Present Distinct Pattern of Propagation in N2a Cell

Rabies is one of the most important zoonosis that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including the orders Carnivora, Chiroptera and Primate. Due to total number of canine rabies cases has decreased in both North and South America is extremely important over the years to study rabies in wild species, especially bats, since these wild species are nowadays the main perpetuators of rabies. A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Rabies lyssavirus nucleoprotein was developed by the Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis (CEPANZO) and the Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) for antigenic variants (V) identification in both North and South America.

Rabies lyssavirus Isolates
Rabies lyssavirus Isolates

This panel established 11 V found in Latin America isolates, including two major reservoir hosts – the dog (V-2) and the vampire bat (V-3), but has not identified the marmoset antigenic profile. Antigenic variant of vampire bat was also identified in others hosts as cattle and horses, and V of marmoset (V-M) in man. Until recently, our knowledge of Rabies lyssavirus pathogenesis was limited and largely based on experimental infection with laboratory-adapted strains.

Genetic Patterns of rpsL and rrs Genes in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Isfahan‚ Iran

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main lethal infectious diseases worldwide, with 9.6 million people affected and 1.5 million deaths, in 2014. Over 95% of TB deaths tend to occur in low- or middleincome countries (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/ en/). In Iran, the estimated incidence of all TB types was 17,000, case detection rate was 22 (per 100,000 population), and mortality rate of TB cases (all forms, excluding in HIV positive patients) was 3.5 (per 100,000 population), in 2014 (http://who.int/tb/country/data/ profiles/en/index.html).

Genetic Patterns of rpsL
Genetic Patterns of rpsL

The disease still remains a global concern with an increasing rate due to drug-resistant TB. Globally, about 3.3% of new and 20% of formerly treated cases were diagnosed as Multi-drugresistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB), with the rates remaining almost unchanged in recent years. In 2014, there were approximately 480,000 (range: 360,000–600,000) new cases of MDR-TB worldwide, and roughly 190,000 (range: 120,000–260,000) deaths from MDR-TB. Among patients with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed in 2014, on average 300,000 (range: 220,000–370,000) suffered from MDR-TB. More than half of these patients were from India, China, and Russia. In Iran, there was approximately 0.8% (0.30–1.4%) of new TB cases with MDR-TB in the same year.