Environmental friendly biofuels gain great interests due to climate change and the need for renewable transportation fuels in recent years. Ethanol has been received more attention as the most widely used biofuel . However, compared to ethanol, higher alcohols have several advantages as next-generation transport fuels. And they are compatible with current infrastructure. Isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties such as higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity than ethanol. Furthermore, it has higher octane number than the isomer n-butanol.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high tolerance to isobutanol up to 20 g/l and robustness during fermentation in harsh industrial conditions. In addition, S. cerevisiae naturally produces small amount of isobutanol as byproduct from the catabolism of amino acidsx. So S. cerevisiae has been considered as an attractive alternative host strain to produce isobutanol. Initially, glucose is converted to pyruvate via the process of glycolysis. Then pyruvate is converted to 2- ketoisovalerate (KIV) in the mitochondria by acetolactate synthase (Ilv2), acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase (Ilv5) and dihydroxyacid dehydrates (Ilv3)
L-asparaginase is known to be the most hopeful and upcoming anti-tumour enzyme helpful in reduction of the level of amino acid L-asparagine resulting in cancer cell starvation and leading to the cell death. Although, there are many sources of asparaginase enzyme yet bacterial source i.e. E.coli and Erwinia species is mostly used as a therapeutic agent against leukaemia. In presented study screening of various bacteria is carried out by rapid plate assay for asparaginase. Enzyme producing then intracellular and extracellular Asparaginase were extracted from its potent producer i.e. E.coli that is isolated from sewage water. Obtained results showed that an intracellular asparaginase enzyme is found to be more active against asparagines as compare to the extracellular enzyme.
SCLC is treated mostly with chemotherapy whereas NSCLC can be treated with chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these treatments depending on the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. While several treatment options exist, chemotherapy remains the treatment choice for advanced/metastatic disease. Unlike other cancers such as breast and prostate, survival rates for lung cancer have not shown great improvements.
Rabies is one of the most important zoonosis that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including the orders Carnivora, Chiroptera and Primate. Due to total number of canine rabies cases has decreased in both North and South America is extremely important over the years to study rabies in wild species, especially bats, since these wild species are nowadays the main perpetuators of rabies. A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Rabies lyssavirus nucleoprotein was developed by the Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis (CEPANZO) and the Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) for antigenic variants (V) identification in both North and South America.
This panel established 11 V found in Latin America isolates, including two major reservoir hosts – the dog (V-2) and the vampire bat (V-3), but has not identified the marmoset antigenic profile. Antigenic variant of vampire bat was also identified in others hosts as cattle and horses, and V of marmoset (V-M) in man. Until recently, our knowledge of Rabies lyssavirus pathogenesis was limited and largely based on experimental infection with laboratory-adapted strains.
The disease still remains a global concern with an increasing rate due to drug-resistant TB. Globally, about 3.3% of new and 20% of formerly treated cases were diagnosed as Multi-drugresistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB), with the rates remaining almost unchanged in recent years. In 2014, there were approximately 480,000 (range: 360,000–600,000) new cases of MDR-TB worldwide, and roughly 190,000 (range: 120,000–260,000) deaths from MDR-TB. Among patients with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed in 2014, on average 300,000 (range: 220,000–370,000) suffered from MDR-TB. More than half of these patients were from India, China, and Russia. In Iran, there was approximately 0.8% (0.30–1.4%) of new TB cases with MDR-TB in the same year.