Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand as a Potential Therapeutic Target

CD40 and its ligand CD40L (CD154), members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super-family, have a key role in the functions of the immune system. It is well known that CD40 is widely expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, platelets and fibroblasts. However, CD40 expression was observed not only in cells related to the immune system, but also in cells of several different types of carcinomas, such as in the ovary, breast, lung, renal, melanoma and colon among others. CD40 it appears to initiate the differentiation and the proliferation of certain cell types.

Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand
Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand

The CD40 ligand CD154 has been most commonly observed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and secondly on activated CD8+ T lymphocytes, eosinophils and B lymphocytes as well. Connection of the CD40 with its ligand CD154, results in the activation of both the humoral and cellular immune response systems via the professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells.

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Application of Foetal Stem Cells for Treatment of Cerebral Palsy

stem cell open access journalThis is a pilot study with a preliminary demonstration of safety and efficacy of FSCs administration in children with CP. This research has shown that FSCs therapy, irrespective of CP severity, favourably influences the course of children’s development and their immunological markers. Such future reflective research studies are essential as well as larger randomized, placebo-controlled trials would help to further characterize potential of FSCs associated improvements in children with СР.

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Camelid antibodies act as therapeutic agents against Immune Diseases

Recombinant antibody technology progressed rapidly during last decade, mainly because of their human therapeutic use. The vertebrate immune system generates billions antibody molecules. Of them, camelids have been found to possess structurally different kinds of antibodies. These camelid antibodies are composed of two heavy chains similar to conventional antibodies.

Camelid antibodies
Camelid antibodies

Contrary to the structure found in conventional antibodies these heavy-chain antibodies lack the CH1 domain. Nanobodies are antibody-derived engineered therapeutic proteins. Nanobodies possess structural and functional properties of naturally occurring heavy chain antibodies. The nanotechnology was originally developed after the discovery that camelidae (camels & llamas) possess fully functional antibodies without light chains. These antibodies contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3).

Genetic Variations – Boundless Heroes and Villains

A wide occurrence of genetic variations is seen in gene pool of every organism. These variations are found to be linked with cancer, turner syndrome, cystic fibrosis, etc. However, some of the variations have been proved to be beneficial in specific cases such as lowering of cholesterol level, increasing bone density, and developing of resistance for malaria. Hence, author concludes that genetic variations or switches can be explored for their noteworthy role in evolution of human species and pave a way for scientists to discover various therapeutic approaches.

Genetic Variations
Genetic Variations

Genetic variants can be either polygenic or monogenic depending on the number of genes involved. Monogenic mutations include single gene causing diseases which are considered as rare and severe diseases. These kinds of diseases run in families and are not adversely affected by environmental factors.

Can Imaging Aid Diagnosis of Inner Ear Malformation and Predict Digeorge Syndrome?

FISH: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization; IVC: Interventricular Communication; IAC: Interauricular Communication; PFO: Patent Foramen Oval; CHL: Conductive Hearing Loss; SNHL: Sensorineural Hearing Loss; CT: Computed Tomography; SCC: Semicircular canal; LSCC: Lateral Semicircular Canal; PSCC: Posterior Semicircular Canal

digeorge syndrome
digeorge syndrome

DiGeorge or 22q11 deletion syndrome was first described in 1965. It is a genetic syndrome characterized by deletion of band 11 on the long arm of chromosome 22. The term CATCH 22 has been employed (Cardiac anomaly, abnormal face, thymus hypoplasia, cleft palate, hypocalcemia, chromosome 22) but fails to describe all the anomalies.

Speciation Genomics of Protein-Coding Genes Common to Mycoplasmatales

The proliferation of sequenced genomes has permitted the evaluation of the role of natural selection at that level of organization. Studies have shown that some species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, show positive Darwinian selection in relatively large number of genes, whereas other species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana show very low levels of positive selection compared to purifying or negative selection. By comparison Homo sapiens show intermediate levels of positive selection.

Speciation Genomics of Protein-Coding Genes
Speciation Genomics of Protein-Coding Genes

Such studies have in common an evaluation of selection within a single lineage but generally do not address selection that may be occurring as new species arise, that is at splits in their respective phylogenetic trees. A few studies have targeted selection as species diverge, but most of them are restricted to evaluating SNPs scattered throughout the genome and not whole sequences of genes. Using this approach, one may infer whether selection is common or rare during speciation but not necessarily whether selection is associated with particular functional groups of genes, which in turn may inform hypotheses on the genetics of speciation.

Transposon Induced Nitrogenase in Rhizobium japonicum Infecting Vigna radiata

Rhizobium, a soil inhabitant is a gram negative, motile, rod shaped bacterium that establishes a symbiotic association with the host legume by forming nodules on the surface of root. For the establishment and functioning of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, coordinated expression of the several symbiotic genes of both partners is required.

Vigna radiata
Vigna radiata

A transposon is a DNA fragment which can transpose from one site to another in the genome. One of the applications of the transposon is to mutate a gene (mutagenesis) and determine the physical location of genes of interest. Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is an important legume and a wellknown economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries. It is often included in crop rotation to replenish nitrogen and improve soil fertility. Mung bean is used in several food products. It is rich in vitamin and minerals which are necessary for human body.