Even in this modern era Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious challenge for the world. Due to emerging of resistance strain and coinfection with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) it is difficult to control the disease. Among the 22 high TB burden countries Pakistan ranks 5th, in case of multi drug resistant its position is 27th. In the year 2013, approximately 12997 incident cases of drug resistant TB in which only 1570 (13%) were registered for treatment. Aim of this study was to find out treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at Tehsil Head Quarter Dargai, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014.
Mrs. Smith, whose named has been changed for privacy purposes, was an elderly woman, well into her 80s, with diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. She was my clinic patient and has been followed for many years in our resident practice. Her daughter always brought her to her appointments, and waited politely in the waiting room while her mom saw the doctor.
There are unanswered questions about epidemiology of tuberculosis. Infection by tubercle bacilli causes tuberculosis. Only few infected persons get tuberculosis. Why do the vast majority escape? Why interval between infection and disease can be weeks or many years? Is succumbing more often due to exogenous re-infection than endogenous reactivation? Why do many cases have spontaneous cure? Why do some non-specific infections by environmental Mycobacteria provide immunity.
It has been recommended as a core drug (a minimum medical need for a basic health system) by World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of clinical trials, research statistics, various case reports and also from opinions of experts. The current narrative review aims to highlight these aspects through a short journey from its pharmacological profile to its older and recent indications.
Chronic orofacial pain (COFP) disorders, collectively, affect a large proportion of the population. They can involve dysfunction in multiple systems: musculoskeletal, vascular, neurovascular, neuropathic, idiopathic, and psychogenic. Further, they can present singly or in combination. Even when a COFP disorder is associated with a single cause (e.g., neuropathic), it can present with a range of clinical features. Hence, it is common for COFP patients to consult multiple providers before an accurate diagnosis is made, including primary care providers, dentists, physical therapists, and mental health professionals. While several COFP diagnoses are relatively common (e.g., migraine, tension-type headache, and temporomandibular disorders), other COFP syndromes are less prevalent and are often misdiagnosed.
It is contaminated with grayanotoxin, which causes intoxication. This grayanotoxin is found in rhododendron plants in various places such as Turkey, China, Tibet, Nepal, Myanmar, New Guinea, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines and North America. Mad honey produced in spring is more toxic and contains more grayanotoxin than that produced in other seasons and has a sharp and biting taste which is irritating to throat.
The current issue 1 of volume 2 discussed significant studies from well-known researchers. Jamal et al. studied the toxic effect of the pesticides on the occupational sprayers and found decreased levels of serum acetyl cholinesterase with impairment of liver and kidney functions and altered hematologic parameters. The study suggested that the restrain must be imposed on indiscriminate usage of lethal pesticides as it affects the entire ecosystem including human beings.