Treatment Outcome of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Tehsil Head Quarter Hospital Dargai

Even in this modern era Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious challenge for the world. Due to emerging of resistance strain and coinfection with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) it is difficult to control the disease. Among the 22 high TB burden countries Pakistan ranks 5th, in case of multi drug resistant its position is 27th. In the year 2013, approximately 12997 incident cases of drug resistant TB in which only 1570 (13%) were registered for treatment. Aim of this study was to find out treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at Tehsil Head Quarter Dargai, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Pulmonary Tuberculosis

A total of 410 PTB patients were enrolled. Of the total cases, 373 (90.98%) were diagnosed as new cases, 17 (4.15%) were relapse cases, 13 (3.17%) were transfer in cases, 7 (1.7%) were others cases while no case of treatment failure and treatment default were recorded. The treatment success rate (cured and treatment completed) was reported 333 (81.22%), 8 (1.95%) cases were died from PTB, only 1 (0.24%) case was failure, 2 (0.49%) cases were default while 4 (0.98%) were transfer out and 62 (15.12%) cases were no record of treatment outcome.

Concepts of right and wrong conduct in Medical ethics

One of the basic fundamental rights of patients is the autarchy to decline medical treatment. An important feature of medical ethics is the right to decline and honour the wishes of the patients. Even though advanced decisions are not immutable and can or may be negotiated by family members or any loved ones as decision makers. Author describes a case that highlights the significance of advanced care planning, complexity of decision making, and area for potential improvements in clinical field.

Medical ethics
Medical ethics

Mrs. Smith, whose named has been changed for privacy purposes, was an elderly woman, well into her 80s, with diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. She was my clinic patient and has been followed for many years in our resident practice. Her daughter always brought her to her appointments, and waited politely in the waiting room while her mom saw the doctor.

Why Tuberculosis Has Not Been Eradicated? Need for Vision and Bold Innovative Research

Tuberculosis has been a major world health problem for centuries. It has not been eradicated despite advancements in science. Main reason is that research and its utilization have gone into a deep rut because of lack of vision and innovation. There is an urgent need to think out of the box and adopt innovative approaches. These approaches should cover research on epidemiology, bacteriology, biochemistry, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis besides utilization of research findings and funding of research.

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis

There are unanswered questions about epidemiology of tuberculosis. Infection by tubercle bacilli causes tuberculosis. Only few infected persons get tuberculosis. Why do the vast majority escape? Why interval between infection and disease can be weeks or many years? Is succumbing more often due to exogenous re-infection than endogenous reactivation? Why do many cases have spontaneous cure? Why do some non-specific infections by environmental Mycobacteria provide immunity.

Ketamine-The Confluence of Old and Recent Concepts

Ketamine was approved and first used clinically in 1970. It has been the time-tested drug in different clinical situations over last five decades. Its first published use was in pediatric ophthalmological procedures as an analgesic agent. Ketamine is a solid pharmacological agent and is phencyclidine derivative. Although termed as dissociative anesthetic agent, but it has not dissociated itself from the anesthesiologist’s shelf.

Ketamine
Ketamine

It has been recommended as a core drug (a minimum medical need for a basic health system) by World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of clinical trials, research statistics, various case reports and also from opinions of experts. The current narrative review aims to highlight these aspects through a short journey from its pharmacological profile to its older and recent indications.

Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders

Chronic orofacial pain (COFP) disorders, collectively, affect a large proportion of the population. They can involve dysfunction in multiple systems: musculoskeletal, vascular, neurovascular, neuropathic, idiopathic, and psychogenic. Further, they can present singly or in combination. Even when a COFP disorder is associated with a single cause (e.g., neuropathic), it can present with a range of clinical features. Hence, it is common for COFP patients to consult multiple providers before an accurate diagnosis is made, including primary care providers, dentists, physical therapists, and mental health professionals. While several COFP diagnoses are relatively common (e.g., migraine, tension-type headache, and temporomandibular disorders), other COFP syndromes are less prevalent and are often misdiagnosed.

Chronic Orofacial Pain
Chronic Orofacial Pain

This delays the initiation of effective treatment for years in patients with some of the less common conditions. COFP syndromes may arise from a variety of underlying pathophysiologic causes and are typically categorized as musculoskeletal, vascular, neurovascular, psychogenic, neuropathic (episodic or continuous), and idiopathic.

Mad Honey Poisoning: A Review

Honey use in folk medicine dates back to 2100-200 BC. Historically, it has been used for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, wound healing, cold, and diabetes. Modern scientific literature suggest potential health benefits of honey as an antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antitussive, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anti-fungal, antiinflammatory, and antitumor agent.

Mad Honey
Mad Honey

It is contaminated with grayanotoxin, which causes intoxication. This grayanotoxin is found in rhododendron plants in various places such as Turkey, China, Tibet, Nepal, Myanmar, New Guinea, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines and North America. Mad honey produced in spring is more toxic and contains more grayanotoxin than that produced in other seasons and has a sharp and biting taste which is irritating to throat.

Toxic Effects of Pesticides

 Toxicology is a branch of pharmacology concerned with the study of adverse effects of chemical, biological and physical agents on biological systems to establish the extent of damage. Determination of relationship between dose levels and its effects on the living organisms attain great significance in clinical studies. The Journal of Toxicology is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes studies including Environmental toxicology, Chemical toxicology, Industrial toxicology, Toxicogenomics, Reproductive toxicology, etc.

Toxic Effects of Pesticides
Toxic Effects of Pesticides

The current issue 1 of volume 2 discussed significant studies from well-known researchers. Jamal et al. studied the toxic effect of the pesticides on the occupational sprayers and found decreased levels of serum acetyl cholinesterase with impairment of liver and kidney functions and altered hematologic parameters. The study suggested that the restrain must be imposed on indiscriminate usage of lethal pesticides as it affects the entire ecosystem including human beings.