“Autism spectrum disorder” diagnosis requires the presence of at least three symptoms in the category of “deficit of social communication” and at least two in that of “repetitive behaviours.” This work discusses the link between autism, empathy and perception – action process, according to neuroscientific evidences. The results suggest that malfunctions hinder the normal development of self-other relationship, triggering waterfall processes that result in empathy deficit. However, the literature is not sufficient to establish the extent to which these elements are altered in people with autism.
In this hypothesis, the fundamental characteristic of empathy consists in being both ourselves and the other. Following Berthoz, empathy is a dynamic process, which requires a doubling, requires the adoption of an egocentric point of view, but after an allocentric manipulation, while inhibiting the emotional contagion (typical of sympathy). Adopting this perspective, the ability to assess the perceptual egocentrism condition is of fundamental importance in the teaching-learning process.