Rabies is one of the most important zoonosis that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including the orders Carnivora, Chiroptera and Primate. Due to total number of canine rabies cases has decreased in both North and South America is extremely important over the years to study rabies in wild species, especially bats, since these wild species are nowadays the main perpetuators of rabies. A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Rabies lyssavirus nucleoprotein was developed by the Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis (CEPANZO) and the Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) for antigenic variants (V) identification in both North and South America.
This panel established 11 V found in Latin America isolates, including two major reservoir hosts – the dog (V-2) and the vampire bat (V-3), but has not identified the marmoset antigenic profile. Antigenic variant of vampire bat was also identified in others hosts as cattle and horses, and V of marmoset (V-M) in man. Until recently, our knowledge of Rabies lyssavirus pathogenesis was limited and largely based on experimental infection with laboratory-adapted strains.