One of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine is represented by injuries of the articular cartilage due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. A consequence of these injuries is represented by osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic condition of the joints, caused because of the progressive wear and tear on articular cartilage. This study provide an updated survey of the major progress in the flied of biomaterials for cartilage tissue engineering, including biomaterials their advantages or disadvantages and the main seeding cell sources. Also, focuses on the progress made in the field of biomaterials for cartilage tissue repair and regeneration over the last years.
Because of the fact that the surgical intervention presents a lot of disadvantages, in 1977 it was carried out the first experiment for cartilage repair by Green. They had grown chondrocytes in an ex vivo environment and the cells proliferated through many generations and then the cells were transplanted into a cartilage defect of a rabbit.