Worldwide greenhouse gas emissions are increasing and are thought to contribute to global warming, which has the potential to affect climate, ecosystems, and the spread of diseases. Among the various approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emission, the use of bioethanol has attracted international attention because it is a carbon-neutral fuel that is produced from naturally abundant biological materials. As bioethanol is predominantly derived from sugar or starch crops, it represents a sustainable, renewable, environmentally friendly transportation fuel that is a promising alternative to gasoline.
Although bioethanol is increasingly being used as a fuel source around the world, the rapid increase in bioethanol use has also affected crop production patterns, resulting in increased food prices. Therefore, second-generation bioethanol production requires the development of economically feasible and sustainable processes utilizing renewable lignocellulosic materials that do not compete with food sources.