Fungal infections occur in children undergoing each type of Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT), mostly due to Candida spp., with the most likely site of infection being nearest the site of surgery. For kidney transplant recipients; the urinary tract is the most common site. Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) incidence is low in kidney transplant recipients although potentially lethal. The frequency of Aspergillus infection in renal transplant recipients is between 0.5% and 2.2% with a mortality rate of more than 88%. Localized renal aspergillosis is by far a rare entity, to which patients with compromised immune status are more vulnerable group.
The origin of Aspergillus infection in transplant patients, although not well defined in many cases, is usually the immunosuppressed transplant recipient. Transmission from an immunosuppressed and subclinically infected donor has been reported although iatrogenic contamination during preservation or perioperatively could not be excluded in the latter case.