Spina bifida means split spine. It occurs when the spinal column does not close all of the ways or spinal column has closing alterations during gestation. In the USA, about 1500 babies are born with spina bifida or brain and spine defects every year. It makes this the most common permanently disabling birth defect. Because of a developmental abnormality of the spinal cord in the first trimester of pregnancy, spina bifida happens. Anatomy of the vertebra, vertebral canal, contents and surrounding tissue is important for understand of embryologic development of spina bifida. Spina bifida emerges as a result of the non-closure of the upper part of the neural tube during embryonal development. It is classified into two main groups: open and closed spina bifida.
The reason underlying it is not clearly understood. It is thought to arise as a result of genetic and environmental factors. Various other reasons which are unknown today are also thought to be effective.We checked literature of vertebral anomalies, malformations and clinical conditions including spina bifida. A number of clinical studies have been published in the literature on the closure defect in one part of the vertebral canal and many gross clinical cases of neonate have been reported.