Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with the helminth Schistosoma species. Two hundred million people are infected worldwide, primarily in the equatorial areas Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) has been one of the major causes of liver diseases and portal hypertension related fatalities in many countries.Diagnosis is pivotal to all aspects of schistosomiasis for assessment of morbidity, evaluation of chemotherapy and control measures.
In spite of the generation of new knowledge in the area of S. mansoni, there remains the unsolved controversy associated with the basic diagnosis of this serious parasitic disease. This relates to the direct microscopic examination of faeces used for eggs detection. Stool examination has been and remains the main diagnostic method in use. Although it is a simple and straight forward technique, this method of diagnosis has variable sensitivity, especially in the presence of low intensity infection and in patients during the acute phase of the infection.