The incidence of pediatric fractures is 180 to 200 per 10.000/year. The largest part of these fractures occurs in the forearm and this accounts for approximately 30% to 40% of pediatric fractures. Fractures in the distal third of the forearm account for 75% to 84%. The most common trauma mechanism is a fall on an outstretched arm.
There is a wide variety of pediatric fracture types. This is a result of certain infant bone characteristics. A firm periosteal sleeve protects the underlying cortex, and, thereby, medullary bone. Furthermore, the bone in children is more pliable than in adults. Consequently, a fracture pattern related to above-mentioned qualities can occur without cortical separation: the buckle, or torus, fracture. Buckle fractures are considered the mildest form of fractures in which a force is exerted in longitudinal direction, causing bulging of the cortex in the transition zone between metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone.