Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a human pathogen affecting nearly 3% of the world’s population, is the cause of chronic liver diseases that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Techniques of molecular biology, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing, have been designed and widely used to characterize HCV RNA genome. Although these tests are highly sensitive, the results may be limited due to HCV high mutation rates, low amount of RNA in improperly collected, handled and stored samples with a decreased accuracy of the methods.
Therefore, HCV RNA nucleic acid preparation (i.e. amplification) is a critical step in the molecular procedure.HCV ability to shape its molecular architecture as well as to obtain a high genetic heterogeneity represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of molecular biological techniques. Also, to highlight the viral elements responsible for virulence, accurate and greatly sensitive molecular techniques have to be carried out.