Hemothorax is one of the most frequent consequences of thoracic traumas. Early detection and treatment of hemothorax is of utmost importance in prognosis of the patient. About 60% of polytraumas are associated with thoracic trauma. 150,000 Americans die due to trauma every year and it is the most common cause of death in the population <40 years age. One fourth of deaths are particularly related to chest trauma.Mortality associated with a great vessel or cardiac injury is significant, with >50% of patients dying immediately and less than 10-15% surviving until hospital admittance with critical vital signs.
The etiology of hemothorax is commonly subdivided into traumatic and non-traumatic. The traumatic hemothorax is a result of blunt or penetrating trauma. Non traumatic hemothorax may develop by various diseases or disorders such as neoplasia, lung sequester, ruptured pleural adhesion in the case of pneumothorax, pulmonary infarction, tuberculosis, pulmonary infection (e.g. Dengue hemorrhagic fever), pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae and abdominal anomaly and pathology.