During the past few years, important results have been achieved in trying to corroborate the essential role of senescence process in human body. Senescence may exhibit a negative impact on organ, tissue and cell regeneration through a release of host bioactive molecules, including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors known as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence process have been associated with few metabolic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Currently, the major challenge in the field is to determine the association between senescent cells and age-related tissue dysfunction, define if this is just a question of correlation or there is cause-effect condition or both.
Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein arrangements that close the final parts of linear chromosomes. Functional telomeres need appropriate extension of telomeric DNA repeats to keep chromosomal stability. Any dysfunction on this part of DNA lead to chromosome end-to-end fusion, chromosomal changes and instabilities that may eventually lead to degenerative disease such as cancer.