Data from the Brazilian Organ Transplant Association show that, internationally, Brazil ranks second in terms of the number of kidney, liver and cornea transplants performed. These patients will have to continuously take immunosuppressants to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ and infections or tumors may occur. Among such infections, the main one is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its related conditions, particularly cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and the estimated exposure of the general public varies from 70% in the U.S. to 95% in some African countries. Most women in the world will likely be infected with at least one of the various types of HPV during their active sex life. Persistent infection by HPV is required for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Among women with a persistent infection, 15-30% will present with a precursor lesion for cervical cancer.