Dystonia is characterized by complex, involuntary, repetitive movements. Mioclonia, tremor, bradykinezia, increased or decreased muscle tone supplements the phenotype of dystonia. The character of abnormal movements includes dynamic or static posture. Depending on range of symptoms, dystonia might be divided in to: focal, segmental and general dystonia (GD). Depending on etiology dystonia can be related to: injury, infection, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, metabolic disorders, intoxication or genetic mutation.
Defined etiology of GD can be indicated only among particular cases, and the cause of the symptoms can be cured extremely rarely. The treatment of choice of focal and segmental dystonia remains pharmacotherapy.
Pharmacoresistance or lack of tolerance of the treatment might lead to neuromodulative treatment with ablative procedures or deep brain stimulation (DBS). Reversible mechanism of DBS with lower risk of permanent neurological deficit indicates DBS as preferable. Spectacular improvement after DBS in selected types of genetic mutations favors neurosurgical treatment in those patients [1-13]. Heterogeneity of symptoms and lack of animal model of dystonia are the main reason of absence of qualification algorithm and standardized treatment protocol