Due to the increased incidence of end-stage lung diseases that lead to pulmonary failure, lung transplant becomes a frequent life-saving intervention. Unfortunately, there is a high incidence rate of primary graft dysfunction and failure after transplant. Research is progressing strongly in many directions to improve the clinical outcome of lung transplant.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an antiinflammatory myokine. In humans, it is encoded by the IL6 gene. IL-6 is produced mainly by the T cells and the macrophages of the lung, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, brain and skin. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is the main regulator of IL-6 gene expression, which increases in all cases of tissue injury and inflammation.
IL-6 is also secreted by the vascular smooth muscles as a proinflammatory cytokine, however, IL-6 processes an indirect antiinflammatory effects through the antagonization of TNF-alpha and IL-1, and the activation of IL-10.