A total of 679 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for the study from June 2012-December 2013. Kirby – Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Microbes are remarkably adaptable and amazingly versatile. Through the course of evolution; they have developed sophisticated mechanisms for preserving genetic information and disseminating it efficiently in the interests of their survival. They recognize no boundaries. The resistance developed in one part of the country or indeed in the world can be disseminated readily.
Emergence of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics began even before the first β-lactam, penicillin, was developed. The first β-lactamase was identified in Escherichia coli prior to release of penicillin for use in medical practice. Organism was considered ESBL producer if there was more than 5 mm increase in zone diameter for Ceftazidime and Cefotaxime tested in combination with Clavulanic acid versus its zone when tested alone. The incidence of ESBLs in Manipal has actually decreased over the years. From 41% in 2007; it has decreased to 27.39% in 2009. They developed quick screening methods to assess the different mechanisms of ESBL production, so that the patients can be treated with appropriate antibiotics. Prevalence of ESBLs is reported to be high from Medicine ICU, Surgery wards and NICU/ Pediatric wards.