Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus found worldwide with recent outbreaks in Asia, Europe, and islands in the Indian Ocean. It is an emerging disease in Brazil with a very large outbreak reported in the northeast of the country. CHIKV is transmitted by the bite of the aedes genus of mosquitoes however; there is no reliable data about the prevalence of the insect in this region. Of all the alpha viruses, CHIKV is definitely the most important human pathogen in terms of mortality and morbidity.
CHIKV characteristically manifests as fever, rash and arthralgia and should always be considered in the diوٴerential diagnosis in sudden onset febrile polyarthralgia. Нe word chikungunya means, “become twisted” in the Kimakonde language, an ethnic group in southeastern Tanzania and Northern Mozambique. CHIKV fever shares some clinical signs with dengue such as fever, headache, myalgia and skin rash and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common. Нe most important diوٴerence is that dengue can cause bleeding and CHIKV causes much more intense arthralgia.