The Toxicity Effect of Detergent on Enzymatic and Protein Activities of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Detergents contain traces of iron, manganese and zinc. They are cleaning products derived from synthetic organic chemicals with the ability to foam when used in acid or hard water. In commercial detergents, the surfactant which are mainly responsible for the cleaning action include bleach, filler, foam, stabilizer, builder, perfume, soil suspending agents, enzymes, dyes, optical brighteners and other materials designed to enhance the cleaning action of the surfactant. There are various types of surfactants used in detergents formulation; the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)-ionia surfactants is most widely used. This was introduced as biodegradable alternative to the non-biodegradable branched-chained alkylbenzene sulfonates. LAS have been reported to have a high solid adsorption coefficient, which is attributed to the physico-chemical properties of the surfactants. The LAS molecules absorb to the suspended solid in water bodies and hence end up in sediments along the water course or sludge in treatment plantsclarias gariepinus
The recommended LAS that were claimed by some researchers to biodegrade perfectly have also been reported to poorly degrade in rivers, lakes, ponds, and even in soils. This may be toxic to aquatic flora and fauna and can also induce severe damage to vital organs and even haematological, hormonal and enzymatic disturbances. It has also been discovered that detergent surfactants increases microbial population especially those that are able to use the surfactants as their basic source of carbon or phosphate or both, some of these microorganisms stand as ectoparasites and endoparasites that cause histological degradation in fish species.

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