Pharmacotherapies for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia with Alzheimer’s Disease: Two Subcategories of these Symptoms

We previously reported that aging process and disease progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) connected depressive symptoms (affective disturbance and anxiety) with psychotic symptoms such as delusion, hallucination and aggressiveness. These features are mixed state of manic state and depressive state, therefore, there might be relationship between bipolarity (BT) and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD. From these reports, we considered that BPSD in AD should be treated as “augmentation” (pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder) .

Psychological Symptoms of Dementia
Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

In this previous article, we proposed the reasonability of prescribing the atypical antipsychotics for BPSD in AD. However, in Japan, there are currently no licensed medicines for the management of BPSD in AD patients although in case of oldest old patient antidepressant is useful for ameliorating BPSD in AD.

Stress and Coping among the Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Hospital Based Study

A new baby is the beginning of wonders, hopes and dreams and becoming parents is one of life’s greatest blessings. A parent’s dream of giving birth to the perfect child but the birth of a child with congenital heart disease challenges those dreams. This forces families to deal with a crisis for which they may be completely unprepared. Discovering one’s child has a disability causes major stress, this can disrupt the total family functioning.

Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is now estimated to be the second most prevalent chronic illness may have effects that pervasive consequence for family life. Recently, focused on resiliency variables, especially support and coping strategy, regulating the impact of stress. In the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment and adaptation, social support is viewed as one of the primary mediators between stress and well-being.

Effect of GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Environmental friendly biofuels gain great interests due to climate change and the need for renewable transportation fuels in recent years. Ethanol has been received more attention as the most widely used biofuel . However, compared to ethanol, higher alcohols have several advantages as next-generation transport fuels. And they are compatible with current infrastructure. Isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties such as higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity than ethanol. Furthermore, it has higher octane number than the isomer n-butanol.

GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer
GPD2 and PDC6 Deletion on Isobutanol Titer

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high tolerance to isobutanol up to 20 g/l and robustness during fermentation in harsh industrial conditions. In addition, S. cerevisiae naturally produces small amount of isobutanol as byproduct from the catabolism of amino acidsx. So S. cerevisiae has been considered as an attractive alternative host strain to produce isobutanol. Initially, glucose is converted to pyruvate via the process of glycolysis. Then pyruvate is converted to 2- ketoisovalerate (KIV) in the mitochondria by acetolactate synthase (Ilv2), acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase (Ilv5) and dihydroxyacid dehydrates (Ilv3)

Treatment Outcome of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Tehsil Head Quarter Hospital Dargai

Even in this modern era Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious challenge for the world. Due to emerging of resistance strain and coinfection with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) it is difficult to control the disease. Among the 22 high TB burden countries Pakistan ranks 5th, in case of multi drug resistant its position is 27th. In the year 2013, approximately 12997 incident cases of drug resistant TB in which only 1570 (13%) were registered for treatment. Aim of this study was to find out treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at Tehsil Head Quarter Dargai, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Pulmonary Tuberculosis

A total of 410 PTB patients were enrolled. Of the total cases, 373 (90.98%) were diagnosed as new cases, 17 (4.15%) were relapse cases, 13 (3.17%) were transfer in cases, 7 (1.7%) were others cases while no case of treatment failure and treatment default were recorded. The treatment success rate (cured and treatment completed) was reported 333 (81.22%), 8 (1.95%) cases were died from PTB, only 1 (0.24%) case was failure, 2 (0.49%) cases were default while 4 (0.98%) were transfer out and 62 (15.12%) cases were no record of treatment outcome.

Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand as a Potential Therapeutic Target

CD40 and its ligand CD40L (CD154), members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super-family, have a key role in the functions of the immune system. It is well known that CD40 is widely expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, platelets and fibroblasts. However, CD40 expression was observed not only in cells related to the immune system, but also in cells of several different types of carcinomas, such as in the ovary, breast, lung, renal, melanoma and colon among others. CD40 it appears to initiate the differentiation and the proliferation of certain cell types.

Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand
Colon Cancer and Immunotherapy: CD40 Ligand

The CD40 ligand CD154 has been most commonly observed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and secondly on activated CD8+ T lymphocytes, eosinophils and B lymphocytes as well. Connection of the CD40 with its ligand CD154, results in the activation of both the humoral and cellular immune response systems via the professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells.

Nipah Virus Infection in Thailand: Status

The Nipah virus is an important emerging infectious disease that is still included in the list of disease to be surveillance by WHO. The neurological involvement in Nipah virus infection is an important clinical manifestation. This pathogenic virus of this disease was firstly detected and reported by professor Bing from Malaysia, a Southeast Asian country. Here, the authors would like to discuss the present situation of Nipah virus infection in Thailand, a Southeast Asian country next to Malaysia. At present, Nipah virus infection is still under the closed surveillance from Thailand public health ministry.

Nipah Virus Infection
Nipah Virus Infection

According to a recent report on pathogen causing neurological infection, the Nipah virus is still not observed as a cause of neurological infection in Thai patients with neuro infections. Nevertheless, there are some reports on the survey of prevalence of Nipah virus in several animals, especially for bats, in Thailand. According to the survey in bats, the prevalence of Nipah virus contamination was seen in 6.29% of bats collected from several regions in Thailand. Of interest, although bat is proved to be the carrier of several pathogenic virus such rabies, the bat has never been the problem of zoonosis in Thailand.

Bridging the Gap: A Novel Method for Hemorrhage Control

There are six important vital structures in the neck providing aerodigestive, nervous, endocrine, and circulatory functions and they are minimally protected by the skeletal system unlike other areas of the body. This lack of protection in the neck not only contributes to physician angst during treatment, but also to the high mortality and complication rate when injury occurs. Airway compromise and exsanguination are both very high priorities and the time required to deal with one can be to the detriment of the other. Rapidly controlling hemorrhage provides the time required to establish a definitive airway without further blood loss of an already depleted intravascular volume.

Method for Hemorrhage Control
Method for Hemorrhage Control

Delays in establishing definitive control of the airway can make the task of subsequent airway control difficult or impossible because of hematoma formation or injury/resuscitation induced edema leading to subsequent catastrophic airway obstruction. The Western Trauma Association (WTA) Critical Decisions in Trauma recommends direct manual pressure (DMP) be used as a first line response to penetrating neck injury. However, this approach has been associated with a low efficacy rate due to re-bleeding and exsanguination prior to reaching definitive operative care.